In order to provide greater familiarity with the theme of absurdity, we started this chapter with a survey etymology of the term, followed by a quick mention of cultural expressions as they welcomed the “sense of the absurd” in its various manifestations: literature, philosophy and even theater.
The study of the thought of Camus itself will focus on works that comprise the so-called “cycle of nonsense.” The first occurrence of this “sense of the absurd” are presented in the analysis of his early works, notably The Inside Out and The Law and Marriage in Tipasa , thence to proceed to its expression in the theater with parts Caligula and The Misunderstanding . In these works, Camus has strongly reveals the momentum that launches to life and that, given the inevitability of death, only expand your perception of the hopeless absurdity that man is doomed.
The consequences of this lack of meaning in life are brilliantly embodied by the character Meursault in The Stranger , a work that established the author as a novelist and studied in sequence.
Finally, special attention and a more thorough analysis The Myth of Sisyphus , which comprises a compact body of ideas dilute the notion of absurdity in the whole cycle and that if not enough to constitute a philosophical treatise, at least mark its concern with greater intellectual rigor in a sort of theorising on the subject.
2.1. The Etymology of the word ABSURD and their meanings
The word absurd comes from the Latin absurdus and etymologically means: AB – what detonates, it intensifies, and surdus – deaf. TheDictionary of Word Origins says that the Latin word surdus originally used to mean deafness , was soon extended and used also tochange the field of phonetics. Then it was used to translate the Greek word alogos in the tenth book of Geometry of Euclid, used for measurement. It has the significance of the irrational. The Greek A – without: LOGOS – word, reason.
The same word surdus was also used to mean inaudible or intolerable, unbearable when they heard, so much so that it would be deaf.
The OED tells us also of the intrinsic relationship of the word absurdus with deafness and its incompatibility with reason.
With regard to deafness says that the absurdity is not only the twist of harmony, something that is outside but its absence, to the point where their sound estriônico, confused, too intense and thunderous becomes intolerable to the ears making it inaudible, unable to be heard.
The absurdity is that sound exorbitant, inordinate, excessive and irrational.
The absurd as something out of the reason is that sound expressed by the intolerable lack of sense or prudence, the loss of composure, the manifestation of the ridiculous. “Something irritating, sore, raw, out of tune, discomfort, rare. Out of harmony with reason or property, incongruous, inconsistent with reason and that exceeds all bounds of reason. Not governed by reason, illogical. Opposite reason. ” The dictionary also speaks of absurdism , if we translate literally into Portuguese, where “ethics absurd does not recommend nor virtue, nor the crime.”
The absurdity is the same as folly by the same dictionary.
The absurdity is the state or quality of being absurd. Can be any absurd statement, action or custom opposite to the truth or the obvious reason. “
The Basic Dictionary of Philosophy of Hilton Jupiassu and Danilo Marcondes tells us of the absurd as the discordant, the incongruous. ” He tells us that nonsense is ” that which violates the laws of logic to be totally contradictory. It is distinguished from the false, that can not be contradictory . ” And he quotes thinkers who used the word absurd in philosophy. Begins by saying that ” the father of the philosophies of Kierkegaard’s absurd . ” Cites the existentialist philosophy for whom there is the “inability to rationally justify the existence of things and give them a meaning . ” cites Sartre, who called the absurdity of the existence of God. And, finally, that the quotes from Camus and Kafka the absurd will happen ” especially in the field of moral or metaphysical, to designate the ‘incomprehensible’, the ‘meaningless’ and ‘pointless’ . “
Other dictionaries refer to ” Statement by the absurd “that is” to demonstrate that a proposition by showing that its contradictory is absurd or contradictory hypothesis . ” Or the ” Reduction to absurdity “which is the operation of taking a proposition an absurd result, which shows the fallibility of this proposition. ” 
2.2. Approaches to the Theme of the Absurd
Coming out of the dictionaries and thinking more about the absurdity, we could say that absurdity is what happens but it could not happen. It’s impossible to come true. It’s done the unthinkable thought by concrete facts. It is not acceptable that happened though, remains as unacceptable.
” It is when the logic of the external world of objective facts, no longer corresponds harmoniously with the logic of the internal world of thoughts. That is the absurdity and recognize “.
This lack of harmony between the two worlds is the lack of a connection point, the logic. Is there a gap between what is and what we think or would have liked. What binds the abyss is rope cut reason, the bridge no harmony. The gap is therefore repeated, this absolute incomprehension of what happened but I could never have happened, which was held to impossible, the unthinkable has become thought, that’s unacceptable is unacceptable despite its existence.
His strength is such that the attempt of rationalization and acceptance of the absurd attempt to eliminate any link between the worlds, by contrast, amplifies the abyss of our powerlessness providing us the question of ultimate meaning of life, that is, its meaning and validity.
How to join the flood, how to fill their depth and relieve its thickness?
Even now using terms Camusian, our intention is to bring some approaches to the subject in an attempt to encompass it from ideas that are linked to the absurdity only after thinking more slowly on Camus’s thought about it. The concept, by the very definition of failure, calls himself a wide range of words and images to capture the sense.
Likewise, to capture the feeling of absurdity (Camusian expression) is necessary to evoke other feelings in order to better understand it. Feelings like discomfort, impotence, nostalgia, nausea, pessimism, despair, nonconformity, anxiety, lack of sense are few.
Philosophers such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Shestov, Sartre, Cioran and others expressed the feeling of absurdity in his works. Nietzsche was the greatest influence among all the thought of Camus. Avid reader of the work of this philosopher, we scattered his books contained citations to it. Every thought of Camus walks very close to Nietzsche as we see in just two quotes: ” It is inevitable that the existence as without meaning or purpose to repeat, it is indispensable that man, having no other life but this, to affirm . We have no escape: we are condemned to live many times and every time without reason or purpose, all that remains is to learn to love our destiny . ” In its doctrine of Eternal Return he said: ” If the world could stiffen, dry, die, become nothing, or if it could reach a state of balance, or if he had any targets in general that closes itself the length, unchanged, in-a-time-for-all (in short, metaphysically said: the coming-to-be could be in the lead or anything), that state would be reached. But is not reached … “
However, Camus does not remain in the absurd but will leave it for the rebellion.
Camus examine Heidegger, Jaspers, Shestov, Kierkegaard, and Husserl in The Myth of Sisyphus , which also will quote Sartre, who expressed this feeling of absurdity as a malaise, nausea of modern man. Sartre says: ‘by man is that nothing breaks in the world’ . “There is no way out of nothing and to the Nausea. Nausea occurs in the midst of human society, where the other becomes my hell. ” I can not speak, bow my head. The face of the Autodidact is very close to mine. I smiled with fatuous air, very close to my face, as in nightmares. With difficulty chewing a piece of bread that I decide not to swallow. Men. You have to love men. The men are admirable. I feel like throwing up – and suddenly here it is: the Nausea . “
Emil Cioran is another contemporary philosopher who approximated the feeling of absurdity to pessimism and total lack of perspective of human beings. ” Where can carry both empty and misunderstanding? We cling to the days because the desire to die is too logical, therefore ineffective. As if life had a single argument in its favor – as distinct from evidence indescribable – it would kill . “
” The secret of my adjustment to life? I changed my despair as one would change his shirt . “
There are also other approaches to the theme and feeling of absurdity that not only philosophical. The theater of the absurd in Samuel Beckett, Ionesco and Jean Genet, the absurdity expressed by the inverse ratio of their spans in surrealism, in the movies “repetitive” Luis Buñuel or no sense in “Thou Shalt Not Kill ‘in Krzysztof Kieslowski in literature of Dostoevsky or Kafka, in artistic expression “nonsense” of post-modernity. Not to mention the reference to the biblical theme of the absurd that we examine in Chapter 4.
Poetry is an ideal place for the approach to the theme and feeling of the absurd. His poetry also seeks to by the word in its most varied forms of expression, which was lost. In your beauty, poetry speaks of the ditch, the gulf between us and the life she is missing the bridge that abyss where words just cast their shadows. As in this poem by TS Eliot:
Between the idea
And the reality
Between the motion
And the act
Falls the shadow
Between the conception
And the creation
And the answer
Falls the shadow
Between the desire
And the spasm
And the existence
Falls the shadow
The poetry will speak of the absence of something, the distress of nostalgia, displacement of the transience of life, of relationships broken, the strangeness of things, places and ourselves, something that will always be beyond the tangible, she will be the witness of our condition, approaching us from the absurdity of life.
And closing this section of quotes, we can say that this feeling of absurdity needs of content and form to express it. But because of the limitation of reason to give meaning to the inexplicable, the form content, breadth of feeling that turns out to anchor more on form than on content. However, the form is also in crisis. The words are losing strength and did not cover the facts themselves. One is left with the impression that new words could bring new meanings, or else, and while they do not come, try to repeat the words already existing in an attempt to search for new content to old ways, or new ways to old content. As Arnaldo Jabor said: “It is today that the facts are challenging the interpretation. There are no words that take account of new things. The world has abolished certainties. The cry for new words exist. ” 
In all approaches the absurd, there is a way to relate to the theme that also lead to different directions and postures.
Some choose to exits clear, others less so. Some explain the absurdity sometimes without knowing it, and others try to characterize it, explaining your reasons. Some show, some hide, some simply describe, conceptualize others. Some opt for the supernatural, which will be irrational to others. And still others try to use rationality to explain it and try to live with it. This will be the option of Camus.
2.3. The Notion of Absurdity in Camus Thought
The notion of absurdity in Camus emerges from a deep love for life. The beauty of life and the possibility of meeting her happiness made him deeply jealous and envious: ” I’m jealous, because I love life too much not to be selfish . “
This notion came to him very early. Still young and sometimes sick, as we saw, Camus seems to have experienced what only the great mystics have experienced, the experience of the whole, whose appearance makes life filled with full significance. However, the absolute presence of meaning found in life will have different causes and different consequences for Camus as for the mystics.
The difference also occurs in the result of that experience that occurs in the intensity of the moment. Camus wants to “nourish themselves from the intensity of the moment” attitude so that Jean Grenier commented: “Nothing, therefore, that resembles a will to aesthetic or even a mystic, to destroy in an instant”.
The experience of plenificação life also brings the complete absence of a possible reason and sense. What the mystics to be the presence of God as absolute reason and meaning contained within all eternity, for Camus is the brevity and limited time of enjoyment of life and the certainty of the end of absolute joy. What you will not complete the experience with the transcendent but experience with the living. So your plenificação be no tears, and his peace without joy. This is what you completely.
Camus, who received a strong influence of Greek thought and the Mediterranean culture, find the absolute pleasure in the body. Happiness is in the body, nature and this relationship and not a transcendent being. The promise of happiness lies in the world, in natural things. Its meaning is here, no need to transcendence, for it would be a denial of that promise. The ” jealousy of living “to which he refers to in Tipasa Marriage is the deep love of life in an explosion of a young body in her approach to the world, not trying / hoping to achieve another world, future, and accessible only by faith, which dismisses this body full of life, and this one. Camus prefers the approach of the body to this world:
” Even here, I know I never get close enough in the world. I need to get naked and then dive into the sea, even all of the essences of fragrant earth, wash them in that, and entwine about my skin through which the embrace for as long sigh, her lips glued to his lips, land and sea. Entering the water, that is the thrill alive, the rise of a cold viscosity, opaque, and then diving amid the ringing of the ears, runny nose and mouth bitter – swimming, arms enamelled water coming out of the sea to the golden sun and falling back on a torsion of all muscles, the water run over my body, this tumultuous tenure wave my legs – and no horizon. On the beach, is the fall in the sand, abandoned the world, returned to the gravity of my flesh, sun-dazed, occasionally, a look at my arms where they discover pieces of dry skin with a water slide, the blonde hair and dust from the salt . “
Behold the ” glory: the right to love without measure . “
And with the body and nature, pleasure, not governed by no notion of sin, lies in another body, and Camus, the woman’s body. For him, sin and sensuality is not liberation but a form of happiness.
” There is only love in the world. Hug a woman’s body is also withhold from you that strange joy that comes from heaven … The sea breeze is fresh and the sky is blue. I like this life with abandon and want to talk with her freedom: she gives me pride in my condition of man. However, often told me: there to be proud of. Yes, it’s what: this sun, this sea, my heart jumping out of youth, of my body with the taste of salt and the immense landscape in which the tenderness and glory are in yellow and blue. It is in winning what I need to apply my strength and my resources … Not leaving anything myself, do not put any mask: just me live, worth in fact all the recipes they have for the good life. “
What should count is not the search of a hope that talk of another life beyond this to the achievement of pleasure. There is this life the pleasure and joy. Living this life is the great challenge. That should suffice. Search for another life beyond this would be cheating, would live masks, would be to forget that life offers us the possibility of pleasure: “… and I would jerk who’s afraid to enjoy “
There is also a possibility in this life to live and be proud to live: “… I can not stop me from claiming pride of living that the whole world conspires to give me. ” Thus writes Camus in Marriage in Tipasa, place where it lingered longer than a day to not have too. There he described that part of the whole experience of life in all its power of happiness, freedom and pleasure. Camus lived there entirely, even for a day. As he wrote:
” Just me live with my whole body and testify with all my heart. Living Tipasa, witnesses, and the artwork will follow. There’s a freedom there . “
” Play well my letter of man and the fact of having known the joy for a whole day did not strike me an exceptional success, but the performance was moved from a condition that in certain circumstances, impose on us the duty of being happy. We find then a solitude, but this made in satisfaction . “
His love of life and experience of her body cast in the approximation of the world, nature and others. This is the idea of happiness in Camus. Her sense of happiness comes from what he experiences, that is, lives and witness. Your body is your place of prints. Is it that Camus perceives the world and sees enormous opportunity in it with happiness.
” Come up this bad coffee, but there are plenty of fruit – especially peaches, we bite without cutting or peeling, so that the juices run down her chin. With the teeth stuck in peach, hear the beats in my heart rise in my ears, and eyes opened wide. Over the sea, the enormous silence of noon. All be beautiful with the natural pride of her beauty and the world today makes your sweat with pride on all sides. Before him, because I would deny the joy of living, if I know quit all the joy of living? There is no shame in being happy. “
In Marriage in Tipasa , Camus concludes, and exalts life, but not without a sense of absurdity that exaltation comes out. This conclusion is intense, even desperate but ever hopeful. The more life you pursue, the greater the absurdity that it will bring. Happiness is difficult because it always brings with it the feeling of absurdity. Worse than suffering, is to be happy. Life is such a confluence between happiness and absurdity at the same time: “Everything that exalts life, enhances both its absurdity. In the summer of Algeria, I understand only one thing more tragic than the suffering and life is a happy man. But it can also be the path of a great life because it leads to not cheat “.
Happiness and the absurd are not mutually exclusive, but they live together. Camus says it would be wrong to think that one is born of the other and vice versa. They belong, and “did not discover the absurd without having tried to write a manual of happiness … there is only one world. Happiness and the absurd are two sons of the same land. “
The pursuit of happiness by Camus is the result of his intense love for life and will accompany him to the end of his life. And the more he seeks more meets the absurd. “The more exciting life is more absurd is the idea of losing her” .Between Happiness and the absurd, Camus was unfortunately known more for the absurdity of that happiness. However, happiness is your center, and the symbol chosen by him to tell all your thinking will be the sun of noon, indomitable, unquenchable.
In an interview in 1951 to Gabriel d’Aubarède, Camus says:
” When it happens I look at what is most important to me, which I find is a taste for happiness. I have a great love for people. I have no contempt for the human race. I think anyone can feel proud to be a contemporary of a number of men of our time whom I respect and admire … And in the center of my work there is an invisible sun . “
2.3.2. The Absurd in The Right and the Averse and Marriage in Tipasa
We started discussing the concept of happiness in Camus to peel away the easy and simplistic vision of an author pessimistic in its essence. Not because Camus have thought of the absurd and have put in a position of prominence in your thinking that will make him a damn thinker, a pessimistic writer, a philosopher nor embittered his work will be morbid or morose. It is this that makes it easy reading of Camus an existentialist, which he rejected in another interview, this time Jeanine Delpech on 15/11/1945. Camus said:
” No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I were always surprised to see our names linked. We even think of publishing a brief statement in which the undersigned declare that they have nothing in common with each other and refuse to be liable for errors in which they may incur. This is a joke, surely. Sartre and I published all our books, without exception, before we met. When we met, was to see how we were different. Sartre is an existentialist, and the only book of ideas that I published, The Myth of Sisyphus , was directed against the so-called existentialist philosophers . “
Camus became known worldwide for the first phase of his thought, notably for The Stranger , The Myth of Sisyphus and The Plague.
Aside from The Plague , the author of The Outsider and The Myth of Sisyphus would have a huge facility to be described as pessimistic sentiment common to the existentialists. However, as V says Barreto , “Pessimism in Camus is always accompanied by the presence Mediterranean. ” This presence will be the Mediterranean sun of midday. V. Continued Baker: ” He (Camus) is not caught in the dark pessimism of some writers of the Nordic country. The outdoor life, with strong sun burned, is a reality as far as human limitations, that end being the cause of pessimism . “
For the limitations of life will be their own worst enemies. Against life and happiness are ” death and its variations, disease and old age . “
Life therefore is faced with itself in its inviolability of potential and limitations.
In this relationship of power cord, which appears in the background of life, rather than a duality relation is a relation of ambiguities and paradoxes of existence that denies neither the right nor the reverse. This will be the influence of Greek thought in Camus.
Camus discovered very early the joy and passion for living, but also soon discovers the tragic side of life. Therefore, there will always be in a Camus’ horreur of mourir “(fear of dying) attached to a” de vivre Jalousie “(Jealousy live),” two basic feelings found in man . “
The experience of these feelings will be the backdrop of his early works,
The Inside Out and the Law and Marriage in Tipasa that, along with the subsequent The Stranger ,The Myth of Sisyphus , Caligula andThe Misunderstanding, called up the cycle of absurdity. The analysis of the absurd in these two early works aims to show the origin of the absurd in Camus’s work, showing how this idea has always been present in his thinking.
On The Right and the Averse , Camus sees that ” there is no love to live without despair of living. ” This work will be its source, is to illuminate the sense of the absurd, whether for their revolts. As it says in the preface to The Inside Out and Right in 1958: “… I know that my source is The Right and the Averse.
In this work Camus leaves leak their impatience in the face of the impotence of life against death, old age and loneliness. Already here death had been discovered as a certainty. Make sure that the tragic life. ” The death discovery penetrate everything. Is it tragic that makes the pain and injustice suffered by men. It is tragic that her happiness. Suffer to die. Be happy and die. “
The discovery of death will describe the variations in the four essays in the book. These tests have few nameless characters. There’s an old invalid forgotten by family and God, an old man who ” had their poor adventures: nonsense overvalued, weariness as he celebrated victories and an old woman who also uses the money from an inheritance to buy a vault. There are also there to mention places like Plaza, Palma and Ibiza serving as the backdrop for his investigations of the human condition. And finally, an essay that recounts his childhood and his relationship with his mother who was deaf and her authoritarian grandmother. Here we have in various situations, their loneliness, their distance, her tired, his scream, finally, his monologue, his silence, his end.
Camus calls us to reconcile the dualism of the characters. He says: ” It will not all fit in? Beautiful truth. A woman who abandons himself to a movie, an old man who is no longer ear, a death that redeems nothing and then the other side, all the light of the world … Death to all, but each to his death. After all, the sun warms the bones, though. “
Although Camus always appeals for dialogue, learned in the silence of silence from the mother that the images could be an ideal place for feelings and for the absorption of the absurdity of life. “… and life boils down to an image. “
Camus seemed to have within itself all the intensity of life, as we have said, but it manifested itself only by the revelation of death, also met with the same intensity. Hence the description: ” Yes, that fullness without tears, that peace without joy that I completed … “
This passion without explosion or wick, gave him the feeling of desire without an object: ” In my case, I wanted to love, how you feel like crying. It seemed that every hour of my sleep from now on would be robbed of life … I mean, time without an object of desire . “
The discovery of the death will give attention to the weather, because life goes for death. When born, the button for the bomb that is our life begins countdown. Hence the warning from Camus: ” Life is short, and sin is wasting time . “
And before the darkness and life, ” the great courage is still to keep your eyes open as much about light as about death. “
Weddings in Tipasa , translation of Noces in 1939, is a kind of continuation of what Camus wrote in The Right and the Averse without this literary form. In the words of V. Barreto, ” there is a dialogue between two deaf books. The first shows us Camus characterizing the burden of life as being made of solitude in Noces discovers that the smallest joys experienced may actually serve as instruments of revelation . “
In Marriage in Tipasa , the discovery of death is already amplified in their consequences and manifestations. The absurd notion expressed in The Myth of Sisyphus has here its original wording. Camus begins by saying that ” Before entering the kingdom from the ruins, we are last spectators . “
After entering the kingdom from the ruins, that is, the discovery in the unveiling of the death before our eyes, no longer look out, we’re all characters in absurd ” the world stage . “
This stage has its own melody, flowers, blue sky and the strange feeling of being in the world. There is the morning sun, the wind through the gallows, the ruins of ancient hills, all the smells and certainty of purpose. Not the end of these things, but our end, the end of all the characters.
However, before the end there is the beginning of the relationship between human beings and world. This relationship is described inWedding in Tipasa . ” The title Noces and gives the intention of Camus. Represents the great licentiousness of nature and the sea, the marriage of the ruins and spring, marriage between man and land, according loving the earth and man. It’s like Louis said Facon, the nuptial song of man with nature . “
Given the nature of the human being finds inspiration for her happiness. Not their salvation but ” benchmarks. “
The view of the fields, flowers, perfumes, trees, all this gives to the heart of man “… a strange joy ” . This joy is the same as an actor has when he knows deep down that her role well represented.
However, contact with Djémila, a city of ruins, will tell the man who would henceforth no longer goes to nowhere and no one stops there. ” It’s a place where he turns. “
There, in the midst of a nature where only the pale sun and the wind showed, this became the only existing reality. Again The Myth of Sisyphus outlined here: ” Because for a man aware of his gift is not to expect anything else. “
The heart is restless and death shows its ugly claws and dirty.
In The Wind Djémila in the presence of death stubbornly unalterable succumbed and exhaust all the strength, vitality and energy of life in youth.
” That must be it youth, that hard tete-a-tete with death, this physical fear of the animal that loves the sun … youth has no illusions. Does not it about time nor devotion to build them . “
Death becomes even more disgusting because of all the strength that life brings in youth. Faced with this outstanding strength and noisy death silences its fanfare, transforming it into a wheezing imperceptible.
The life shown in the weak but incessant pursuit of pleasure and happiness, even if short, even if minimal, even negligible. Because after all, is what death has left us.
In The Summer in Algiers , the ” excess of material goods ” leaves the human being amazed at his connection with the land. This connection so deep that life is all covered with natives, sensuality and pleasure. Of course not open to space supra-natural, the divine, the immaterial. Not even the eternal, as all you want is the eternal feeling of those who have gone and left memories that will soon be well.
Even death is natural:
” But, after all, do not see that death may have sacred and feel good, instead, the distance between fear and respect. Everything here breathes the horror of dying in a country that invites to life . “
Life and death coexist in harmony and melody without sound because ” everything that exalts life, enhances both its absurdity . “
Reject the hope is to walk in the only way of life without illusions. ” For if there is a sin against life, maybe not consist so much in despair as her to wait another life, and to evade the implacable grandeur of this … for hope, unlike what one imagines is tantamount to resignation. And living is not resign . “
Finally, in Tipasa Marriage ends with The Desert . Here Camus will prove strongly against hope and immortality.
For Camus, ” the world is beautiful, and elsewhere, there is no salvation “and” happiness comes from the absence of hope, in which the spirit finds its reason in the body . “
The land is as the place of salvation. Godless, hopeless, no tricks or deceptions . “In this great temple to the gods deserted, all my idols have feet of clay . “
Finally, the notions of happiness and the absurd were already at this point as if ready to Camus. But is only in The Myth of Sisyphus he will theorize that intrinsic relationship. He says: “Happiness and the absurd are children of the same land. Are inseparable ”  .The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical attempt to explain what he had done in literature, The Outsider , The Averse and the Law , on Marriage Tipasa and theater, The Misunderstanding and Caligula.
2.3.3. The Absurdity of Caligula and The Misunderstanding
These two plays represent the period of the absurd in Camus’s drama.
The notion of absurdity that accompanies these works had already been developed in earlier works. Caligula was written amid the formation of The Outsider and Marriage in Tipasa . Camus began to write The Myth of Sisyphus in the same year in which he writesCaligula , which will only be closed in 1945.
Vale also said that during the creation of Caligula , Camus was suffering from tuberculosis, which could have done “load in the paint” in its history.
This is all told in order to understand the first step of his work. And Caligula and The Misunderstanding is a theatrical performance, this period drama called absurd.
Here is not the theater analysis of Camus. However, it must be said that his drama is obviously charged by your writing style, and the playwright Camus Camus umbilically influenced by the writer. There was the theater that gave way to his writing but his writing he drew his dramaturgy.
Maybe that’s why Vicente Barreto has said that ” Camus parts can be read as examples of oratory and dialectic, but are deficient as drama . “
Caligula and The Misconception are two texts that contain a dense expressive speech, striking and tragic. And the tragedy is that Camus chooses to represent his dramaturgy, and so express themselves. ” Camus’s intention was to portray the theater metaphysical dilemmas of our time. The contemporary spiritual crisis should find each character in your picture alive . “
Camus even defended the choice of the tragedy at the expense of other genres saying that ” the tragedy, every force in confrontation is both good and bad . “
In tragedy have been ambiguities and antagonisms present and not exclusive. In tragedy has all the passion and pain exposed, all love and hate shared.
For Camus nothing could be less than all together. His love of life was hopeless, his thirst for life was suffocating. Noting the death as an intrinsic part and a certain life, his love life becomes desperate hatred against death, and his thirst for life does go up to the impossible to try to overcome the absurdity of death in a world that listens to you the screams or watch it.
Thus it will be in Caligula and The Misunderstanding.
In Caligula , the concept of absurdity is embodied in the life of this emperor who loses a sense of right and wrong, justice and freedom, becoming yourself in the expression of the absurd. Absurdly passionate in their fight for life, but unregulated and disjointed against death, he destroys himself and dies without being able to eliminate the absurdity of life. In his eagerness to live it is death. Caligula found in the same obsession with the truth and being true to yourself as in Meursault in The Stranger . In the definition of Camus, Caligula “denied all values. But if truth is to deny the gods, your error is to deny men. Did not understand that can not be destroyed without destroying itself. It is the story of the most human and most tragic of mistakes. “
Caligula loses her sister and lover, a symbol of criteria and absence of the absurd in life. His loss is devastating contact with the absurd. In the experience of this nonsense, Caligula is to adjust their logic to the absurd. He no longer rest: kill with an absurd reason, destroy criteria from absurdities, and his justice and personal freedom without limits will be your guide unto death. ” Live, bush, I exercise the power of the destroyer delirious at the foot of which the Creator looks like a ape. This is to be happy . “
Their logic is absurd. Caligula wants the moon for you and this project employs all his efforts insane .. Faced with the absurdity of death just another absurd to rescue him: having the moon. In the words of Caligula: ” I swear that this death does not mean anything, it just means a truth that the moon becomes necessary . “
Given this skewed truth, he realizes the truth of being human. He says: ” Men die and are not happy . “
Caligula is therefore a desperate search for happiness, the fiery passion for the impossible, not only simply to protest against the absurd, the truth discovered by him, but to overcome it. Overcoming that would bring meaning to life and reason.
But his end is tragic. Caligula ends up not getting the moon and his death is the victory of the impossible.
In The Misconception , written after The Plague and before the first of Letters to a German friend , a period of change in his thinking, the notion of the absurd is present and tragic too.
In a simple story Camus speaks of the solitude of John that alien in the world, seeks to go beyond Meursault, trying to rediscover her family and homeland. John says the need for solidarity of happiness: ” No, I have obligation to ensure my mother and sister. I forgot them for a long time . ” And it is in the hotel room that John feels again the feeling of absurdity to rub her heart, despite the sharing of happiness: ” The sky darkens. Thus in all hotel rooms where all the night hours are difficult for a man who is alone. Behold, in the depths of me, again my old anguish, like a bad wound that worsens my every move. I know what it is. It is the fear of eternal loneliness, the fear that there is no response. And who could give us the answer, in a hotel room? “
The question comes into the air, as soon knocking on the door. Your answer will be in the lack of response, who will not cry your hear. And fear and fear will be companions of happiness until the end come true. There is no salvation for John he will be assassinated.
Just as there is no salvation for Martha, sister of John the murder with his mother without knowing it. Girl who with his youth, sought time to shout against the absurdity of his life. And with plans to overcome it she kills her brother. Martha murders his brother because he wants love, wants to put an end to questions and solitude, or a land of horizons: ” Oh, mother! When we have a lot of money and we can leave these lands without horizon, when we leave behind us this rainy city, and forget this country of shadows, the day that we’re finally facing the sea with what I have dreamed so much, that day shall see me will smile ! “
But the end of Martha will be different. In the fight against what is absurd is itself absurd. And so it does when she knows she had murdered her brother in order to steal their money to fulfill their dreams. Here again we see the limitless freedom leading to tragic ends. The end of Martha was humiliating and heartbreaking. Trying to escape the death of his brother and so the absurdity of their actions, Martha opts out of foreign aid divine; outside itself. At the height of his despair searching, crying and asking for help from a character that ends the piece with a loud and indifferent “no.” In his search for transcendence, all she finds is a God who will always look dumb. However, driven by desperation decides to put it to the test but all I hear is a resounding no.
Like a stampede that deaf, The Misunderstanding is the tragic expression of the disproportionate use of freedom and lack of exits before the transcendental problem of the absurd.
2.3.4. The Absurdity in The Stranger
Literature is the abode of Camus. And The Stranger and The Plague are his two great novels. Novel by Camus expresses his philosophy through images. The novel always think in terms of words and not in terms of ideas and philosophy. Camus said it was in words what he thought. For the novel, he escaped from the ethereal world of philosophers and far and was placed closer to real life and real people and expressed the human condition. He himself did not consider himself a philosopher but an artist.
The Outsider is the attempt to say the disorder of society and human inconsistency. In this novel, the absurdity is seen in the situations experienced by the main character, Meursault, the absurd hero. Through him, Camus describes the absurd experience.
This novel would come out of The Myth of Sisyphus . Or conversely, more truly situated chronologically, The Myth of Sisyphus is the explanation, the attempt to theorize the experience of The Stranger.
The Outsider was very well received and made known author in various parts of the world. The novel can be divided into two parts. The first one tells the daily life of Meursault from the death of his mother until the assassination of Arabic. The second part is the story of his trial and death sentence from the first part, because his trial will be done in light of his reaction to the death of his mother.
Camus says that ” The exact meaning of the book consists in the parallelism of the two parties . “
With respect to Meursault, Francois Chavane says:
“Camus confided to Roger Quilliot that the starting point of his novel he had the desire to describe the behavior of a ‘human being alien to your life, life as normally conceived, adapted to nature, but unsuited to the society’. And right thus appears Meursault.
With regard to social and historical content, Español Showolter Jr. says that ” The Outsider had apparent relevance to contemporary political problems, but in a broader moral sense, the book explored the seemingly insoluble problem of the individual in an absurd universe and provided a antidote to nihilism and despair . “
The experience of the individual in an absurd world is seen in The Stranger from the rules governing the experience of this individual in the social environment. These rules are inconsistent because hiding the truth to make people lie to survive. These lies become truth defines the absurd as something that lies outside the walls of these laws. And so will the condemnation of Meursault, a man who does not cry at the funeral of the mother is an absurd man. Camus will say the preface to the American edition of 1956, ” the hero of my book is condemned because he does not play the game as they want. In this sense he is an alien society in which he lives, he roams the margins, on the outskirts of privacy, solitary and sensual . “
The heroism that Camus’s Meursault claims for the absolute courage of the character was not lying, in reversing the poles where is the nonsense and put in place. The truth of the society is a lie and that’s nonsense. Being honest is knowing the absurdity and point it, even if your price is death. And that is what makes Meursault.
Meursault denounce the absurd without being aware of it. His reason is the daily and the succession of events in his life. He does not use logic to say the reality of the absurd. He simply lives, experiences that reality.
The reality of the absurd frees humans to freedom, freedom of expression and feeling. What is not easy because, as Camus says, a lie is “what we all do every day, to simplify life.”
Meursault refute the lies and scare it to everyone, even without knowing it.
Camus was accused of making his characters almost inhuman. However, the potential inhumanity of the characters of Camus, Meursault is especially marked also by a humanity that would make an absurd hero Meursault ” confused, stunned, unconscious, unable to think clearly ” , which however does not take away the clarity.
Meursault has no clear ideas, not the formula and, often, only reacts. Their reactions are incomprehensible, it does not make use of moments propitious to him to explain himself and his speech is almost always monosyllabic, when not opting for silence.
” He told me, first of all, I painted as having a closed and taciturn character and wondered what he thought about this.
– It never got much to say. So I’m silent – I answered . “
Here Camus shows his distrust of language. Meursault’s silence is not unreasonable to Camus. Besides making the criticism of society, which in general drive complex justifications, wait for the speech of Meursault to attack him and take him any possible argument, his silence is also his alibi against the words that build other worlds and that could create Meursault another, worse than that which had already created.
That increase or almost creating a new subject, Camus denounced what Holland calls Lourival literary imposture, which is “the enthusiasm and eloquence” . He says further: “The episode of the wonder of Meursault before the raptures of the Prosecutor or parrhesia Father is exemplary. The rapture (oratory) steals the subject, takes you to the language, beyond itself. Enthusiasm is transportation (divine? .) Again: the little step that separates the pathetic stupidity.’s speech that the excess of feeling cancels and converts it into comedy. But that there is irritating the taciturn Meursault ” . Meursault refuses the word passion. Prefers the feeling of your average almost total silence.
Meursault feels more comfortable with Marie when they surrender to simple living, the desires and “the dispensation of speech” . Lourival Holland, professor of literature also says that living together without the need of speech, “do not let them miss the word that means silencieuse, where evidence of the senses comes as a truce to the absurdity of the world”
For if there is nothing to understand, there is no reason to explain.
Meursault expresses this point between the failed quest for understanding and the inability of the expression.
For Meursault, things just are or are not. Nothing really matters.
I quote two passages from The Stranger to capture that feeling.
When Meursault and Marie, who maintains a relationship, about love and marriage:
” I told Marie the story of old and she laughed. He was one of my pajamas, which rolled up their sleeves. When he laughed, I again felt desire for her. Moments later he asked me if I loved her. I replied that it meant nothing, but that seemed not. It was with a sad air . “
” In the evening, Marie came to pick me up and asked if I wanted to marry her. He said he did so, but that if she wanted, we could marry. Did, then, whether I loved her. I answered, as indeed, answered once, it meant nothing, but that did not love her.
– In that case, why marry me? she asked.
I explained that it had no importance whatsoever and that if she wished, we could get married … Then he spoke. I simply wanted to know if, from another woman with whom he had the same relationship, I would have accepted the same proposal.
– Of course – I answered . “
Second section, a short portion of the conversation with the judge at his trial Meursault:
– Why have you shot a prone body?
Also could not answer. The judge passed his hands over his forehead and repeated the question, his voice slightly altered:
– Why? We need to tell me. Why?
I kept silent.
The heat was getting more intense. As always, when I want to get rid of someone who barely’m listening, I demonstrated an air of approval. To my surprise he said, triumphantly: – See, see? Is not it true that you believe and trust that goes to Him (Jesus)?
Of course, once again said no. She sank into the chair. He looked very tired. Was silent for a moment … ” 
Meursault does not understand and can not make themselves understood. His only rage and anger, it gives the intrusion of the chaplain in wanting to ensure their salvation. Meursault does not want and do not feel the need for salvation. Even amid the certainty of death says he would like another life ” was as important as you want to be rich, swim faster or have a better mouth-made. It was the same order . “
When the priest begins to pray, Meursault jumps over his collar and it turns out “his joy and anger.” His contempt for the certainties did say that none of the certainties of the priest ” was worth one hair of a woman . “
Against the priest he reveals himself and his thinking. Meursault says:
“Nothing, nothing mattered and I knew why this is. Also he knew why. From the bottom of my future, during this whole absurd life I led, I climbed up over the years that had not yet arrived, a blast obscure, and equaled that blow, as he passed, all I had proposed in years, no more real, I lived. I imported the death of others, the love of a mother who cared their God, the lives that people choose the destinations that people elect, as a single destination should elect me myself and me thousands privileged, as he said they were my brothers.
As if this great anger had cleansed me from evil, devoid of hope, before this night filled with signs and stars, I opened for the first time to the tender indifference of the world. Why it felt so much like me, so brotherly, finally, I felt I had been happy and she still was. “
Here since the end of life of Meursault. Absurd life …
Absurd life without purpose and reason. Without an end other than death. And between birth and death is the possibility of cholera, the daily life of the most profound indifference to both do for a living, the belief that nothing matters, of chance, not as an expression of the sense of things and life.
However, the experience of the absurd need not be pessimistic or anxious. If Meursault only revolt when cornered deeply and surrender to indifference that nothing changes or alters, at least he’ll know where happiness and pleasure, namely, the sea, the sun, in love.
This awareness of where is the happiness shows a Meursault lucid in its relationship with life. The absurdity does not take away the clarity, as we have said, but on the contrary, intensifies.
As Sartre said: ” It is certain that we are sure that this hero is absurd and relentless lucidity that is its main characteristic . “
In addition to his lucidity, Meursault is also a man passionate about life.
” Far from being deprived of all feeling, it is animated by a passion whose stubbornness makes her deep passion for the absolute and truth . “
Finally, F. Chavane tells of two meanings or of a dual completion in The Stranger : metaphysics and social.
The conclusion of metaphysics, he says, is to bet “to the absurd and nothing against which we must revolt without hope.”
Already the social conclusion speaks of the impossibility of the juxtaposition of two culturally different worlds, namely, the universe of the judge, the boss, the lawyer, the director of the hospice, the prison chaplain . They are two different games where both sides play alone and do not know how to play together.
2.3.5. The Absurdity in The Myth of Sisyphus
The Myth of Sisyphus is called the closing of the cycle of absurdity. This work was written at the same time of Caligula and The Outsider.
In this work, a book of ideas, an essay rather than a philosophical treatise, Camus seeks the meaning of life and a structure that gives shape to this meaning. Says at the beginning of the book “There is only one truly serious philosophical problem: It’s suicide. Judging whether life is worth living is to answer the main question of philosophy ” . And then : “I therefore believe that the meaning of life is the most decisive of all” .In this search for meaning in existence, Camus tries another path beyond that already provided for transcendence, which includes faith and hope in an afterlife . Camus wants no part of a future life. It also wants no part of a philosophy of life detached, ethereal, enclosed in hermetic thoughts. He even said he only speaks of what he lived.
Camus will take her to life for his beliefs. This life is for him diagnosed by “evidence that is sensitive to the heart, but you must develop to make them clear to the intelligence” . Such evidence as that intuitions that arise from feelings of life will provide the reason the task of delimitation of the difficulties, possibilities and limits of life itself. The reason is fundamental to explaining the human condition and prevent human evading his absurd condition, not to capture all the knowledge, given that impossible.
So goes his method. Your job is to be attentive to the feelings that are evident in your heart and try to formulate them by reason. Complicated issue for the Cartesian philosophy, which certainly relegate the thought of Camus to the middle of religious, literary or not any further credit and / or relevance.
His philosophical work is to commence from the intuitions that become evidence, certainties of sensitivity. There is the feeling of absurdity. Certainties personal, when found, should be the guiding thought. The sensitivity that reveals the human condition, loneliness, pleasure, suffering, happiness, death, will be deeper than the intellect can ever achieve. And the sensitivity is expressed in various ways. Then use the Camus novel, theater and testing, where one sees that “the balance between evidence and lyricism is the only one that can enable us to acquiesce to both the emotion and clarity”.
The concepts come from contact with reality, with life situations. The narrative of the experiences, the description will be much more important than the formulation and / or analysis of concepts. The concern becomes a rational finding existential. Thus we have the thought of Camus that “a day of sun in Tipasa is happiness itself. The mother who is silent is the loneliness. The woman who contemplates his tomb is death itself. Caligula is injustice. Meursault is nonsense. Rieux is the revolt “.
Each of those great feelings, a whole universe of beauty and / or pain in the poses. And we know define them. Not by reason but by experience. However, it must be said that the experience itself does not bring the full awareness of feelings, but is a necessary part of perception to say that “all true knowledge is impossible. One can only list the appearances and make feel the atmosphere “.
The Evidence and the Feeling – The Emergence of Absurdity in Camus
But now the method for evidence of the absurd. Before we say what is absurd to Camus and how it happens in life, think a moment about some issues: the relationship of the work so far with Camus’s The Myth of Sisyphus , how absurd is born in Camus; Why the absurd is so important to Camus? And why make him its tabula rasa, a starting point?
The Myth of Sisyphus is the attempted explanation, more detailed and accurate investigation of human attitudes of which Camus had exposed lyrical form in his earlier work. In this book, Camus leaves the narration of experiences to try to explain them. It was necessary to gather your thoughts on life, way of living it, the place of strength, love and death spread by his writings. In the process, even in the midst of contradictions and inconsistencies, he discovers and chooses the greatest fundamental feeling for what every human being should go, namely, the absurd. This feeling took and wrapped his early life. Although, I believe, have made it clear in the analysis of his early works, this feeling, before being expressed, was experienced. Unintentionally psychologize his thought, I will quote some events of his life for us to keep in mind that the thought of Camus does not relieve your life. Rather, it is the stage of his life he will take the input needed to write the screenplay of his thought. And as we have already quoted the first chapter, and fearing the cliché: in Camus, work and thought the same thing, confused. As Jean Grenier said in the introduction to the complete works of Camus’ A work of art is primarily a personality “.
Camus loses his father early, the mother is distant but beloved companion, her grandmother and educate with stiffness, have a happy childhood, frustrated in his first marriage, is disappointed coma the total absence of God and the silence before the human suffering. Tuberculosis in adolescence will give it the fear of death amid the explosion of life in his youth. About this he writes: “Even later, when a serious illness temporarily took me out the life force in me that everything transfigured, despite the imperfections invisible and new found weaknesses in it, I know the fear and dismay, but never the bitterness. “
This transfiguration which created in him a multitude of aspirations, is to live, to understand, to create and to find happiness was for the core of the feeling of absurdity. This check, made for the whole consciousness becomes the evidence of the absurd.
Early takes readings and is encouraged by a teacher to philosophy lectures. Here is the way of clarity. Despite – and perhaps because of – the certainty of death, he has strong connection with life in their daily lives. Playing football, continues to read, work, live sea (Mediterranean) and the sun, the beach and the sand, takes pleasure in the woman’s body, in nature, in the theater, political engagement, in the books he writes.
This daily life of happiness and pleasure and pride will make searching for a reason, a minimal sense in the face of overwhelming power of death in its various expressions, such a force limiting and extermination of life. Finally, the brush with death made him review his life and his relationship with her. Hence the importance of the absurd. And Camus will describe so well what is absurd to have you experienced deeply. Camus always be strong in your relationship with life. Take life with passion, passion is directly proportional to the sense of the absurd. This will bind the passion for life always so dramatic. By loving life with abandon, he would have great difficulty with the loss and death. In his passion for life, nature and people, is horrified by the presence of the final and unjust death. He says: “The more exciting life is more absurd is the idea of losing it.”
And we think that in the midst of World War II (1939-1945) who was destroying all hopes of seeing something new emerging, Camus could surrender to pessimism and cynicism of their time. Rather, he wanted to find a way to explain human life. And he chose the absurd as a starting point. His choice of absurdity is not to explain it themselves, but to try to explain human life. The absurd is his tabula rasa, a temporary position because Camus knew the impossibility of living in the absurd and that something should arise as a response to this. But we’ll see later.
Outset it must be said that the absurdity is not defined by Camus. There is therefore a concept of the absurd in Camus, just as there is in The Myth of Sisyphus a philosophy of the absurd, as Camus is not a philosopher of the absurd.
In this work, Camus attempts to approximate as much as possible the feeling of absurdity that turned into evidence would require a logical explanation, an intellectual justification, which would be the notion of absurdity. Begins by saying that “the mere concern is the source of all … and that this is not a definition but a list of feelings that may result from the absurd. Finished the list, will not however, exhausted the absurd “.
“The absurd is the content of Feeling” – Experience
The absurdity is in the everydayness of life. It can be anything. The difference is when the feeling comes. And it comes sooner or later, and when it comes, it lives by that sentiment filled nonsense. This feeling is the anguish of the hotel room from which the character of John The Misconception speech. It is when death is revealed to us and its unveiling, tells us of his strength and makes us have it, death as the only certainty in life. Facing death we want answers and solutions, but “want is to raise paradoxes” and against this there is what to do or set, just trying to peer into its consequences.
The absurdity is the meeting never happened with the absence of the search, the despair at the frustrating attempt to paste the golden cup which has not broke, to reconnect the silver thread that does not burst and to rebuild the shattered wheel at the well but that never broke down, remembering what the preacher says the book of Ecclesiastes . It is the perennial presence of a node that never loosens the throat, a crack in the deaf ear, a silent cry and dry before the tragedy of the end.
The absurdity is this “revolt of the flesh, this one sure” , the desperation and horror that grabs us when we know the time when enemies do not have to do or what to fight. The absurdity is this concern at the contradictory world, apathetic and unfair. It is “the thickness and the strangeness of the world” , the requirement of familiarity hunger for clarity that man has on the universe and can not find. “The absurd is born of the confrontation between the human call and the unreasonable silence of the world”.
There is this definition of Camus, a relation, a set of strengths and weaknesses of both sides. The absurdity is not defined by either side because it is “essentially a divorce. Is neither one side or another of the elements compared, born of their confrontation ” .The absurdity is inserted in the middle of the two sides in the center between the two terms. Is the chasm without a bridge between human and world, between desire and object, between the question and answer, between the empty and the other empty, and by nothing. The appeal, the human cry that goes out in search of return for an answer, is faced with the absence of any feedback possible, and is swallowed by the unreasonable silence of the world, thus revealing the distressing situation of this condition and absurd.
The man, according to Camus, the absurd experience while he note its existence and fight. Experience is all nonsense. And experience is the consciousness that one has when we finally asked about the meaning and value of life alienated and liar. “Conscience of the routine, then the question of meaning leads to the absurd sensibility. To realize a full day to see if mechanical is excluded from its true condition. There is freedom of conscience has awakened to the consciousness of his journey. It is to live without humanity “. Awareness is the clarifying of the feeling of absurdity that Camus speaks, which is the encounter with the lack of desire, lack , “This divorce between man and his life, between the actor and his setting”.
Consciousness thus becomes the criterion by which everything begins. Once off the torpor of an alienated existence and that their habits by hiding their true condition, the decision by the absurdity is indisputable. The decision to accept the absurd as it reflects the human need for clarity, as well as the readiness to give this constant expression. Paradoxically, the decision to affirm the absurdity allows human beings to live in harmony with the conditions and basic requirements of life.
The suicide was a way to eliminate it without solving it. But we must deny it. What is required of the human being is absurd to assume, assert, live and experience the absurdity of taking their destiny into their own hands, and for the lucidity and courage to face this nonsense without any hope. This is her rebellion, “a permanent confrontation of man with his own dark … It is not aspiration, no hope … it is only the certainty of a crushing fate, without the resignation that should accompany it “..
Option by Absurd
Chavane criticize the thought of Camus concerning the theme of the Absurd with respect to the starting point of his thinking. He says: “Your mistake, we believe, lies in the exclusion – the reality that he perceives – everything that is not absurd. When he says ‘the one given to me is absurd,’ he ends in a prison where no glimmer of hope can penetrate. He acknowledges the fact when he admits that “the absurd is the opposite of hope.” In The Myth of Sisyphus , Camus refuses to hope for, having made the bet of the absurd, he chose to live without hope “.
John Cruickshank also say that the solution to the absurdity of Camus, “seems more acceptable if expressed as a deliberate choice than a logical deduction.”
However, Camus does not think in terms of choice of the absurd, for to him his only point of departure is absurd. Since there is no choice because there is no option, he gets the absurdity of life and defines itself intransigent about it. There is your truth and it can not escape, even the hardest truth. Camus says that “seek what is true is not seeking what is desirable has .taken this truth, the absurd becomes the only option, already made and to be recognized. He says further: “From the moment it is recognized, the absurdity is a passion, the most heartbreaking of all … We need to sustain the commitment of the excruciating and wonderful nonsense”
The moment of discovery of the absurd, a discovery that highlights what has always existed, the ethics of the absurd man is based on honesty and integrity, fundamental characteristics that will prevent it from front to escape the absurdity of existence. Once tested the sensitivity absurd published evidence and realized his thinking, ie, its concept, we must fight his tragic decree.
Assume the absurdity is not taking the apathy or resignation but its inverse. This struggle is your criteria for not disqualify her and also not to be easy prey for its own pitfalls. To avoid these pitfalls, Camus rejects the options for the physical and philosophical suicide, hope and faith. For him, these issues are the negation of life and at the same time, consented to accept the absurdity that is what is left. For Camus, absurdity is the beginning not the end. And to say the lack of meaning in life and suggesting the need for the experience of absurdity, it does the absurd become, in a sense, a meaning in life.
Logically, it raises the question of suicide due to have assumed that the only reality of life is absurd. For if the absurdity is there and can not do anything against him, we have left?
Camus is not only adheres to the notion of absurdity. There will be an answer to it. For this reason, he does not agree with suicide physicist who would be joining the destructive force of the absurd by unreasonable use of freedom. Life needs to experience the absurd, and suicide is not the answer to it, however, is the deliberate delivery, consent that does not eliminate it.
But the philosophical suicide is the authentication of the limitation of reason to explain the world. It is a shameless surrender of lucidity human, non-negotiable factor in the struggle against the absurd. Camus will do a short analysis of some thinkers who are representatives of what he thought humiliated and philosophical suicide. They are: Heidegger, Jaspers, Shestov, Keirkegaard and Husserl. The thought is the thought humiliated delivered to your own limitations, is the discovery of the absurd for reason, a discovery that has come to rely on easy answers and liars like the supernatural and irrationalism. The thought is humiliated failure of reason in an attempt to explain life, is the abandonment of logic before the insoluble dilemma of lack of sense of humanity, is the weakness of the intelligence function of reason humiliated.
In an attempt to answer that kind of thinking, Camus establishes the reasoning absurd , to which “many came to get it. Do not know if content with this “.
His reasoning is absurd not surrender to irrationalism. Do you think that intelligence, although limited and failure, may respond to the absurdity to surrender to irrationalism. Camus wants to make possible the coexistence of reason and human existence. Criticizes those who have forgotten the existence in favor of reason (entire tradition Cartesian-Kantian-Hegelian), but also criticizes those who, departing from there, eventually falling into irrationality and transcendence. Here’s why Camus has said that his book of ideas, The Myth of Sisyphus , was against the existentialists.
For Camus, the existentialist philosophy denies the right, thereby reducing the man. For the critique of reason existentialism comes to the deity, that is, the deification of history. Question that will treat Camus in The Rebel . His critique of these thinkers is partly because of what they do to integrate the absurd man, making escape while their essential character, “which is opposition disunity and divorce (SiC)” . That divorce should not be solved by hope or by God. That would escape the challenge of the absurd and hide in one sense and false liar. We must face the absurd, not escape it.
Heidegger cites and briefly criticized for thinking that there is humiliated because he could not be measured by rational categories. The biggest concern is the reality, that turns into anguish when it emerges to the conscious level, this became a permanent condition of being human. For Camus, Heidegger discovered the absurd but not out of it, falling on the man’s humanity.
Jaspers quotes that make the description of failure and delusion of the human condition, the “impossibility of knowing” to soon try to save the human condition devastated by the “divine secrets”.
Cita Shestov assumes that only the absurd in his work to eliminate it. Criticizes the “pre-eminence of the irrational” in his thinking and the existence of something beyond reason. Camus never accept the irrationality and while I agree with the fact of reason to be vain not agree that there is something beyond. This is for Camus delivery to eternity and God as a misleading answer to the dilemma and human condition.
He quotes Kierkegaard, one of the most important precursors of existentialism as the most interesting of all and that “did more than discover the absurd: he lived” .For this thinker, that there can not be solved only by intelligence to be impotent, but will emphasize the need for transcendence of this limitation of reason, opting to jump in the dark as a way to give meaning to existence. Though he lived on the absurd, Kierkegaard does not want to continue it. Here is your mistake.
And finally cites Husserl and the phenomenological method. You can tell at first glance, that the phenomenological method approaches the absurd thought wanted to respect the description that both are of human existence and the “plurality of truths, ie truths individuals, each thing has its own truth” . The thought must have limits and know its impossible to explain. But that description also needs to continue without doing the philosophical suicide that others have done, nor venture to explain what he described. And here the absurd thought of Camus departs from phenomenology. Husserl is not limited to the description, but walks to the explanation of phenomena, trying to capture their essences. Camus did not accept this quest for eidetic be another appeal to transcendence. He says that “to the absurd man, it is no longer to explain and resolve, but to try and describe … Describe, here is the ultimate ambition of thought absurd. “
Any explanation is required only to maintain the tension and ensure the atmosphere of absurdity. However, this explanation never become in concept and should always multiply. Manuel da Costa explains it best: “Everyone know it plays, so the movement’s own absurdity, which opposes a perpetual tension the one and diverse, the rational and the irrational, life and death. This move is ultimately my only certainty, but certainly not one to be decanted in concept. ” Camus says that “the explanation is useless.”but is this tension between explanation and description is useless gives the absurd.
Still doing the critical thinking of Husserl, Camus says that reason in Husserl not have any kind of limit, which can not be accepted by the absurd.
Anyway, Camus rejects suicide philosophical, or denies the reason, or replaces the transcendent, or does not give you their proper boundaries and limits.
Regarding faith, Camus rejects because it would be cheating with respect to the sterility of the acts. It would serve as a decoy on the walk with the absurd, would take the human being the need to take their destiny into their own hands and still would wait for a nonexistent life in the future that would cause it to deny the present life. The human being needs to absurd lucidity and courage to not fall into the traps of his own absurdity, as we have said, and faith is certainly one of them.
Before continuing with the analysis of The Myth of Sisyphus , it must be clear that the human being is absurd and knowing conscious that his end is death and there is no output beyond the natural. He finds himself in the meantime between the consciousness of absurdity and the inevitability of death. Meanwhile, his mission is to shape their destiny by the possibility of joy in the daily creation. And it is on myths. This is what Camus will try to do with the myth of Sisyphus.
The Ethics of Human Absurdity
Before discussing the myth of Sisyphus properly, we will stick to the characters described by Camus as examples, not models, their ethics absurd.
Camus analyzes three characters to describe the human absurdity. The human being is absurd that the accounts do not eternal. As I said, its attributes are to take courage and face your situation, and lucidity, his reasoning to establish their own limits. In the words of Camus, his freedom is the long term future without his revolt and his conscience perishable.
Depending on the search for clarity of understanding imposed by humans, the absurdity arises between this search and lack of reason in the world. Since the absurd as an explanation and reference, the ethics of borrowing will be an ethical Camus the absurd that will save mankind from a bottomless pit without taking it from there. This ethic is, in the words of Avi Sagi, an ethic of duty and obligation to absurdity. Hence, ethics is a process of self-revelation which is directed to practical conclusions. Examples: to stay connected to the absurd there is no need for integrity and honesty, to accept the absurdity of life will need courage and lucidity, so that the absurd does not make us resigned need to revolt, so that we do not hold the absurd in our actions and activities, you need to creative freedom. And so on.
Camus will depart from the idea of innocent human beings, that will change later. This innocence demand unity that the world does not, search for the absolute and can not find. There goes your cry of rebellion, arises from the creation and pursuit of that absolute. The mind knows the impossibility of any knowledge, knows of no significance to his life and the certainty of death. Faced with this state of things, but hopeless uprising protesting the creation appears but is sterile.
The attitude is absurd because free from all guilt. There is the original error .God will not be accurate. Thus, “The absurd is sin without God” . The justification is not necessary ever. And if the absurdity does not authorize all acts, he brings responsibility to act. The absurd man does not despair at the consequences of their actions, instead he will accept serenely as part of life. We could make the criticism of Camus to say that their ethics do not encourage or release all the acts allowed or even unwanted by the absurd man. However, ethics does not give these senseless acts to load the error. You could say that it is not given to man to kill, but once done, the absurd ethical responsibility will bind only to the facts and restore “to remorse its uselessness” .This will Meursault, owner of an ethic of whatever.
Camus also believes that its ethic is quantity. No longer a quest for experience the essence of things but the amount of experience you have. So you measure the life. Living is not play hard, to live is to live longer. Because the amount of intensity will tell. Living longer is to be more connected to life, it is possible to participate with greater constancy in the world and enjoy life you have is to live with more awareness of things. So are the characters in the book. In them, we have life through images, they chase the absurd reasoning by giving him his attitude and warmth.
Each of these characters will examine an aspect of life absurd.
Don Juan will be the first and typify the tragedy of the absurd. He finds the love experiences on the amount that had their attainment. However, you are not satisfied. Its objective is the effectiveness of their allure. And having once seduced the women and taking every one, experienced love differently, its absurdity is intensified and he departs for new conquests. Your love is generous, as singular and fleeting. He knows how to live their present and search for other gifts with no hope, either past or future. If punished, no matter. He will make his punishment the destination, and a “Destiny is not a punishment”.
The actor will be the second example of ethics absurd. The average person who has not made its own absurdity, would the half life would imply, divert your head and be quiet ” . The actor will be the negation of this life by consciousness. Awareness of your life and the fantasy lives of others that he takes for himself. He will live the experience of many others before him have so many different destinations offered, and live for a few moments the “eternal liveliness” (Nietzsche) of some characters. His glory is as ephemeral all others and their success / failure will arise in the present. And there is the greatest glory, as efemeriza in the present moment, the immediate and not on projections of present or past. The body part captures the knowledge spread all their characters and lives of pure appearance and its boundaries. Its intensity is the difference in their characters and the fleeting moment of its representation.
The third character in Camus’s absurd ethics is the winner. Without specifying it, Camus says that the winner is the man who knows he can not live off of his time and so is linked deeply to him. Your relationship to time is given the choice of action rather than contemplation. Not because he does not know the contemplation but because he knows she will not give him anything because he is deprived of the eternal. Making your life’s playing field, living his historical moment with an intense relationship and distress, does not deny their joys and atrocities. However know that their cause is futile and that no cause can be victorious. Thus the allies lost causes because he knows that every action is useless and that their only certainty is his flesh. Vicente Barreto says the conqueror : “Him nothing left, not even a doctrine, unless the conviction that Manly is one that manages to be lucid, because only this way the force will not be separated from clairvoyance”. 
Camus says that these images are only to serve as an example and not to be followed. The lover, comedian and winner serve to outline the life style of the absurd. The absurd is the attempt to form this absence heavily silent between humans and the world. Ethics absurd is the desperate attempt to give shape to this new form proposed by Camus. His characters / images are examples of what could be anyone who knows and does not mask anything, in the words of Camus. He wants to make of all kings and queens, giving them the opportunity to participate in a royalty, giving them greater power. However, this participation is the most ephemeral of all, and your higher power is in knowing that the royalty is the most illusory of all.
Camus says of his characters: “Neither I nor anyone else can try them here. They do not seek to be better: try to be consistent. If the word applies to the wise man who lives without having to speculate about what has not, then those are wise “.
The world of his characters is a world where God does not address and where your children seductive – the hope and faith – are taking place. It is a world populated by men and women who met with the absurd and try to live your life in harmony with them, expecting nothing, giving nothing, unless the consciousness of the tragedy of death and timed it until everything is over. First, however, joy, love for creation, pleasure, anger and present. All under the air absurd.
Finally, the effort of Camus, not only with the absurdity of its ethics but even with respect to all his work, again citing Roger Quilliot,”is less a problem of establishing a review of what to draw from several texts something that resembles an exemplary attitude of life “.
There will have a path through which to express the absurdity, compatibilizing explicit that divorce between the world and reason. Camus deny the route of this path previously done by suicide, by philosophy and by God. His answer is creation.
The creation is the answer to this divorce, the human revolt against the absurd. It is the link between human and the world, his attempt to find its equilibrium. The artwork should know, being aware of its limitation, transience and lack of function. Creation is the negative response to the call / temptation of hope. Even that creative activity is “one of those able to complete the existence absurd”, the artwork will never be your medicine.
The creation is through thought. By thought it doubles the world, because “thinking is, first of all want to create a world (or limit your, what comes to the same thing). It is from the fundamental disagreement that separates man from his experience to find common ground for interpretation as nostalgia, a universe of reasons corseted or cleared of analogies that solves the divorce. “
Camus says that a work of art, as well as science and thought, mark the multiplication of the experience and make your monotonous repetition. Likewise delimits the time of his death. “Also the science, having reached the end of its paradoxes, ceases to propose and stops to contemplate and draw the landscape is virgin phenomena. The heart thus learns that the emotion that sweeps in the faces of the world does not come from their depth, but its diversity. The explanation is useless, but the feeling remains and with it the increasing calls for a vast universe in quantity. It is understood, now, the place of work of art. “
In art, says Camus, the artist lives twice. What the characters absurd The Myth of Sisyphus do is double your world and endless repetitive trials, setting the intensity of life by the amount of experience they could produce.
In another evidence discovery by feelings, Camus says that hope can not be avoided forever and it may take up to assault those they supposed to be free from it. For humans the constant refusal of hope may be more difficult than maintaining the sense of absurdity and attitude around him. And it is a function of persistent hope in the human heart that Camus would say that many would accept this illusion. However, the feeling of the absurd and his experience of the force know that hope has. When trying to reject hope, wisdom says the absurd hope it launches in the creation but the creation for nothing, to work without a future, it snaps only in today, without any care in their preservation.
This fleeting creation, inspired by the revolt and also by hope will not surrender to fatalism, by contrast, is the vibrant presence of perseverance in trying to shape the destiny, even if that perseverance is already known in advance doomed to sterility, and to nothing to defeat. It is also worth mentioning that for Camus, the artwork is the work that speaks less.
For the work to be absurd, you will need the presence of feeling and intelligence. The feeling will bring the evidence of its absurdity and intelligence will state the limits of reality, and therefore the work. Thus, the absurdity is a function not of his creation. Its absurdity is the evidence of his feelings, worked on the ground, will show its absurdity and lack of function in the world. Think, for Camus, is to create a world. The creation is the result of the revolt that brings the absurd.
Camus says that “in this universe, the work is then the only possibility to maintain awareness and to fixate on their adventures. To create is to live twice … The whole existence to a man who has deviated from the eternal, is just a treat unreasonable under the shade of the absurd. And this great gift is to create “.
Yet, paradoxically, Camus says that creation is not imprisoning human nonsense and that the revolt is not necessarily linked to creation. Camus And he even said that “create or not create, it does not change anything. The creator of nonsense does not depend on his work “.
Here is another paradox in his work.
In creation, Camus is your favorite artist. Your absurd hero is the writer. The writer is the greatest of artists. Even philosophy has its characters, images and plot. Camus’ novel for all philosophy, and romance is all image. The writer clings to the description of what the explanation. The arguments are already there. No need to create them, not to formulate them in a logical manner. A novel tells the knowledge of what we love, on and inexhaustible . The novel is fragmented description of human experience lived by the artist. That description, its value lies in what it suggests, from the requirements absurd, namely: separation between the world and man, his absurd condition, anger, their feeling of limitation and lack of output and total acceptance. The value of the novel, as well as the work of art, what is the illusion that he never mentions as an alternative, in what no mention is made explicit, leaving just under our responsibility to our own destiny.
Camus will look like a character in Dostoevsky’s The Possessed presenting this work does not work as absurd, but presents the problem and embraces the absurd.
Finally, completing the analysis of The Myth of Sisyphus , think about the myth itself. If, in its earlier figures they only projected images and delineators paths that should not even be followed, his real hero is absurd Sisyphus. Sisyphus is a character from Greek mythology, because he despised the gods, was condemned to roll his boulder up a mountain. When arrived there, the rock loosed again and Sisyphus had to get it going again and take it to the mountaintop, and so do the same motion throughout eternity.
How to describe yourself, Sisyphus Camus describes as follows: “The contempt for the gods, the hatred of death and passion for life won him that unspeakable torture in which the whole being is concerned in not completing anything. It’s the price to be paid by the passions of this world. ” 
His tragedy is his salvation. He joins his punishment is that union and the consciousness of your destiny. Your torment will never end. At first he only has the stone as evidence of his condition. But when Sisyphus took the stone and your job as his absurd situation which can not and should give up, everything changes. Aware of his condition, hope you can go, unless the stone take daily hoping to see her reach the top. Hope launched at nothing every time he sees her falling back.
Greater than his rock, Sisyphus has a fair measure of its futility and makes it his mission. A mission sterile and without results or consequences, not to be sure that does not need anything outside himself, not even time to find your happiness. Does not appeal to the gods, but on the contrary, despises. Not a victim of his offers of salvation and sees himself above them in their helplessness. Do not depend on them for the meaning of her world as she knows it does not exist. However, Sisyphus does not live in a vacuum but creates for him a world that offers experiences.
His clarity he brings to his torment, but also brings the possibility of happiness. For Camus, the sadness has two reasons, namely ignorance and wait. This is why Camus chose to see Sisyphus (and Don Juan) happy. They know their state and do not expect anything or anyone.
It is noteworthy that there is also a critique of Camus by force the situation of a Sisyphus happy. José Orlandiz says that this is the product of imagination of Camus. Happiness would see him safe and winning with your task completed. The contrary would be a tragedy, incompatible with happiness.
However, Camus overwhelms the coherence and the fracture is commonly seen and expects a concept as happiness. For him, Sisyphus subjugated their condition even if it is linked forever. He did not surrender so easily. Place the stone on top of the hill is his happiness and pleasure fleeting.
Sisyphus rebels against his rock to make his punishment place and sign of their happiness. For happiness is just the awareness and lucidity of his condition and have their own destiny in hand. Sisyphus has such joy that the gods do not know. And disregards the fate that was imposed. And as Camus says, “there is no destination that becomes payable by contempt ‘
Final Thoughts on the Topic
The notion of absurdity in Camus’s not for him more than a starting point. Later he would regret being associated so strongly on this subject. The absurdity was an idea he took from the streets of his time , and he used as a propellant and a backdrop of a thought that would develop and show ways quite different from those expressed here.
Camus would not yield to the lack of meaning in the world. What does your early work is to dive into it and express it with impressive lyricism and reality. His perception and description of the absurd notion that become denser and understandable without the need for defined terms.
Perhaps the lack of a totally clear concept of what he wants to say absurd, Camus walks between contradictions and inconsistencies that turn out even better express their meaning. As Manuel da Costa P. Grandson at his master’s thesis on Camus: “The absurdity is not a projection between the world of an inner malaise as either the common place that assimilates Camus existentialism” . Rather,”the absurdity is a consequence of this impossibility of judging and understanding the world”.
The absurdity is because this bottomless pit which appears before the human being, between her scream and silence unwarranted, unreasonable world. Of that abyss he takes his puzzlement, frustration and contempt. It is only by diving deep into that abyss nonsense that he finds himself in a position to bet on the best reasons for living. This is the paradox: The absurd is the emptiness of where he will take the direction to fill life. In addressing the theme of the absurd, Camus will always have it as a starting point, but it will not rule continued, however, does not cease to fight against it, even if it is an uphill struggle and lost.
Is there anything new that there can and should arise. Surge humans absurd (Absurd L’homme), an expression that does not mean the man deprived of reason, however, the human being lucid, who acknowledged that everything is absurd and meaningless. In The Myth of Sisyphus , Camus wants to make use of reason not to make another criticism of it, nor to set the absurd but to deal with the consequences that brings the absurd. It’s ridiculous that he draws something new, specifically three consequences nominated by him which are: the revolt, freedom and passion.
Faced with the injustice of death, Camus sees threat to life constantly. His attempt is not to despair or resign before his uncompromising strength and assume, for the revolt , a stance to fight their diverse expressions. So do not surrender to suicide or hope or faith. His freedom is knowing whether the owner of his own experiences and their own destiny. So, before death comes, you must know that a lot of passion for living.
To live this life “with the double consciousness of a desire to remain and their fate of death” , between anguish and terror of the limits of our existence and blatant desire for eternity that we carry in us, we need something more than absurd. Anders Osterling, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, which made the reception speech at the award the Nobel Camus, reports the change between the two thematic moments of thought this author: “The key to Camus is no longer whether life is worth the worth living, but as we must live it, with the share of the suffering it entails “.
That brings us the absurd (Camus which asks whether life has meaning) to revolt (in which he discusses how we must live it). The revolt and transformation will answer all your thinking started by the absurd notion.
Sisyphus is happy … but need the help of Prometheus.
SHIPLEY, Joseph T. Dictionary of Word Origins . p. 6.
 The Oxford Dictionary – Volume I – Second Edition. P. 57
JUPIASSU, Hilton and Marcondes, Danilo. Basic Dictionary of Philosophy.
Cuvillier, Armand. Small Vocabulary of the Philosophical Language , p. 9, and also: FOULQUIÉ, and Paul Raymond, Saint-Jean.Dictionaire de la Langue Philosofique , P. 11.
 Cuvilliés, Armand. Op. p. 9.
. WELLER, Embler. Metaphor and Meaning; Rethoric of the Absurd . Cassette tape
Marton, Sarlett. Nietzsche. The Revaluation of Values . p. 67.
 Ibid., P. 66.
Sartre, JP The Thinkers . p. X
Ibid., In the Bedroom , p. 98.
Ibid., Nausea , P. 181.
Cioran, Emil. Breviary of decomposition . p. 18.
Ibid., syllogisms of Bitterness . p. 86.
Jabor, Arnaldo. oxymorons Needs New Pa-larvae . pp. 5-8
CAMUS, Albert. Bodas in Tipasa , P. 20.
 GRENIER, Jean. Op. p. XVII.
CAMUS, Albert. The Right and the Averse . P. 89
Ibid., Weddings in Tipasa. p. 10.
 Ibid., Pp. 10:11.
 Ibid., P. 11.
 Ibid., P. 12.
 Ibid., P. 13.
 Ibid., P. 11.
 Ibid., P. 32
Idem. The Myth of Sisyphus . p. 144
 Ibid., P. 161
Ibid., In PHILIP, Thody (Editor). Albert Camus. Lyrical and Critical Essays , pp. 351, 352.
 Ibid., P. 345.
BARRETO, Vicente. Camus, Life and Work . p. 30.
 Ibid., P. 29.
ESPINOLA, Maria C. De Oliveira. The Absurd and the Revolt in the First Phase of the Thought of Albert Camus . p. 27
 BARRETO, Vicente. Op., P. 29.
CAMUS, Albert. Avesso and The Law , p. 100.
Guimarães, Carlos E. The Human Dimensions . p. 32.
 CAMUS, Albert. Op., Pp. 54 and 55.
 Ibid., P. 68.
 Ibid, p. 90.
 Ibid., P. 107.
 Ibid., P. 108.
 BARRETO, Vicente. Op., P. 36.
CAMUS, Albert. Bodas in Tipasa , P. 8.
 Ibid., P. 13.
 BARRETO, Vicente. Op., P. 36.
 Ibid., P. 38.
 CAMUS, Albert. Op., P. 13.
 Ibid., P. 16.
 Ibid., P. 17.
 Ibid., P. 18.
 Ibid., Pp. 18:19.
 Ibid., P. 22.
 Ibid., P. 30.
 Ibid., P. 32.
 Ibid., P. 33.
 Ibid., P. 45.
 Ibid., P. 47.
Ibid., The Myth of Sisyphus . p. 144
 BARRETO, Vicente. Op., P. 173.
 CAMUS, Albert, In BARRETO, Vicente, Op., P. 173.
Ibid., In Lebesque, Morvan., Camus For Himself pp.59 and 60
Ibid., Caligula Followed by The Misconception , P. 162.
 Ibid., P. 23.
 Ibid., P. 24.
 Ibid., P. 199.
 Ibid., Pp. 150 and 151.
 Ibid., In CHAVAN, François. Op. p.66
 Ibid., Pp. 69-70
SHOWALTER Jr., Español. The Stranger. Humanity and the Absurd . P. 10.
 CAMUS, Albert in PHILIP, Thody, Op., P. 336.
 BARRETO, Vicente, Op., P. 147.
CAMUS, Albert. The Stranger , pp. 70 and 71
HOLLAND, Lourival. Under the Sign of Silence , p. 55.
 Ibid., P. 38.
 Ibid., Pp. 45 and 46.
 Ibid., P. 72 and 74.
 Ibid., P. 123.
 Ibid., P. 124.
 Ibid., Pp. 124 and 126.
 Guimarães, Carlos E. Op., P. 35.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Introduction to The Stranger , pp. 17:18.
 CAMUS, Albert in THODY, Philip, Op. p. 336.
 CHAVAN, François. Op. p. 73
CAMUS, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. pp. 23:24
 Ibid., P. 24
 Guimarães, Carlos E. Op., P.49
 CAMUS, Albert. Op., P. 31
 GRENIER, Jean. Op., P. XI
CAMUS, Albert. The Right and the Averse . p. 22-23
Ibid., The Myth of Sisyphus . p. 161
 Ibid., P. 33
 Holy Bible . Book of Ecclesiastes chapter 12 verse: icular 6
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. pp. 34, 36 and 46
 Ibid., P. 49
 Guimarães, Carlos Eduardo. Op. p. 53
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 26
SAGI, AVI. Absurd Is the Problem or the Solution? P. 283
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 71
 CHAVAN, François. Op. pp. 60-61
Cruickshank, John. Albert Camus and the Literature of Revolt . p. 65
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 59
 Ibid., P. 41
 Ibid., Op. p. 29
 Ibid., Op. pp. 53.54
 Ibid., P.44
 ESPÍNOLA, Maria Cristina de Oliveira. Op. p. 59
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 116
PINTO, Manuel da Costa. Albert Camus: A Praise of the Essay . P. 105
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 117
 Ibid., P. 66
 Ibid., P. 85
 SAGI AVI. Op. p. 278
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 58
 Ibid., P.86
 Ibid., P. 94
 Ibid., P. 100
 BARRETO, Vicente. Op., P. 61
 CAMUS, Albert. Op., P. 110
 Quilliot, Roger. Op p. 90
 CAMUS, Albert. Op., P. 135
 Ibid., P. 121
 Ibid., Pp. 116-117
 Ibid., P. 134 and 135
 Ibid., P. 116
 Ibid., P. 119
 Ibid., P. 133
 Ibid., P. 142
 LEBESQUE, Morvan. Op. p. 62
 CAMUS, Albert. Op. p. 143
 NETO, Manuel CP Op. p. 12
 Ibid., P. 80
CAMUS, Albert. Noces . p. 43
Osterling, Anders. Nobel Lectures Literature . p. 521
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